There are about 60 different coffee beans, but only 4 of them are the most popular in the market (because of the costs, the fruits, the cultivation). These are: Arabica Coffee, Robusta Coffee, Liberal Coffee and Excelsa Coffee.
Among the four species listed above, almost all of the diffusion and production is to be divided between the Arabica Coffee and the Robusta Coffee; so let’s find out more about them.
Arabica Coffee is the species cultivated since longer time, as it has been used for centuries. This has also led it to be the most widespread species in production: around 70% of coffee produced in the world is Arabica Coffee. Robusta Coffee has managed to get off the other species, reaching nearly the remaining 30% of the coffee produced in the world. Just because they cover almost all of the coffee in circulation, let’s understand what are the fundamental differences of the two species.
From a genetic point of view, Arabica Coffee has 44 chromosomes, while Robusta Coffee has the exact half or 22.
On the other hand, Coffee Robusta has almost double the caffeine compared to the Arabica Coffee; In fact, in the first the percentage of caffeine varies from 1.7% to 4%, while for the second the percentage decreases to 0.9% to 1.9%.
From a visual point of view, the two species differ because the Arabica Coffee has a bigger, oval grain and almost “S”, while the Robusta Coffee has a rounder, smaller and more “straight ahead”. In addition Arabica Coffee is a plant more vulnerable than the Robusta species, and therefore needs more attention. This factor contributes to the higher cost of the Arabian than the Robusta.
Arabica is grown mainly in South America, Central America, Kenya, Ethiopia and East Africa; Robusta is predominantly produced in West Africa (Cameroon, Ivory Coast) and in the Far East (Vietnam and Indonesia are the major producers). In addition to this, Arabica grows best at elevated levels, over a thousand meters and needs a lot of rain, while Robusta grows even at lower altitudes and under less ideal conditions in terms of humidity and soil type; also has less disease problems.
For taste it is important to consider that Arabica has a more delicate, less bitter profile, with a more or less pronounced acidity and with intense aromatic sensations. Robusta, on the other hand, has less vigorous taste sensations, a strong sense of bitterness and a great body.
Art Café Torrefazione proposes all 100% Arabica coffee, except the Espresso Professional Blend blend containing 20% Robusta. You can see the entire catalog here.